Tafiya ta Rana zuwa Salzburg

Salzburg Kurgarten
Salzburg Kurgarten

A cikin Neustadt na Salzburg, wanda kuma ake kira Andräviertel, a arewacin Lambunan Mirabell, akwai wani yanki mai tarin yawa, wanda aka tsara, da shimfidar wuri, wanda ake kira Kurpark, inda aka halicci sararin samaniya a kusa da Andräkirche bayan rushewar tsoffin manyan bastions. . Lambun wurin shakatawa yana ƙunshe da tsofaffin bishiyu kamar linden hunturu da rani, ceri na Japan, robinia, bishiyar katsura, bishiyar jirgin sama da maple Jafananci.
Hanyar ƙafar da aka keɓe ga Bernhard Paumgartner, wanda ya zama sananne ta hanyar tarihin rayuwarsa game da Mozart, yana tafiya tare da iyaka da tsohon garin kuma ya haɗu da Mariabellplatz tare da ƙofar daga Kurpark zuwa ƙaramin ƙasa, arewacin Mirabell Gardens. Koyaya, kafin ku shiga cikin lambunan kuna iya neman wurin wanka na jama'a tukuna.

Idan ka dubi Salzburg daga sama za ka ga cewa birnin yana kan kogin kuma yana da iyaka da ƙananan tsaunuka daga bangarorin biyu. A kudu maso yamma da baka na da'irar da ta ƙunshi Festungsberg da Mönchsberg da kuma a arewa maso gabas ta Kapuzinerberg.

Dutsen kagara, Festungsberg, na gefen arewacin Salzburg Pre-Alps kuma ya ƙunshi babban dutsen Dachstein. Mönchsberg, Dutsen Monks, ya ƙunshi haɗaɗɗiya kuma yana haɗi zuwa yammacin dutsen kagara. Glacier Salzach bai ja shi ba domin yana tsaye a inuwar dutsen kagara.

Kapuzinerberg, a gefen dama na kogin kamar dutsen kagara, na gefen arewacin Salzburg Limestone Pre-Alps. Ya ƙunshi fuskokin dutse masu tudu da faffadan ƙugiya kuma an yi shi da babban dutsen Dachstein mai kauri da dutsen dolomite. Tasirin gogewa na Salzach Glacier ya ba Kapuzinerberg siffarsa.

Gidan wanka na Jama'a a Dandalin Mirabell a Salzburg
Gidan wanka na Jama'a a Mirabell Gardens Square a Salzburg

Lambunan Mirabell galibi sune wuri na farko don ziyarta akan tafiya ta yini zuwa Salzburg. Motocin bas da suka isa birnin Salzburg sun bar fasinjojin su sauka T-junction na titin Paris-Lodron tare da dandalin Mirabell da Dreifaltigkeitsgasse, tashar bas ta arewa. Bugu da kari akwai wurin ajiye motoci. CONTIPARK Parkplatz Mirabell-Congress-Garage, a Mirabell Square wanda ainihin adireshin shine Faber Straße 6-8. Wannan shine da mahada don isa wurin shakatawar mota tare da taswirar google. Kawai a gefen titi a Mirabell Square mai lamba 3 akwai ɗakin wanka na jama'a wanda ke da kyauta. Wannan hanyar haɗi zuwa taswirar google yana ba ku ainihin wurin gidan wanka na jama'a don taimaka muku gano shi a cikin ginshiƙi na ginin da ke ƙarƙashin inuwa yana ba da bishiyoyi.

Unicorn a Salzburg Mirabell Gardens
Unicorn a Salzburg Mirabell Gardens

Wani matakalar marmara neo-baroque, yana amfani da sassan balustrade daga gidan wasan kwaikwayo na birni da aka rushe da kuma mutum-mutumi na unicorn, yana haɗa Kurgarten a arewa tare da ƙaramin bene na lambunan Mirabell a kudu.

Unicorn dabba ce mai kama da a doki tare da Kakakin a goshinta. An ce dabba ce mai tsananin ƙarfi, ƙaƙƙarfan ƙawa, mai tarin ƙafa da za a iya kama ta idan aka sa budurwa a gabanta. Binicorn ta yi tsalle ta shiga cinyar budurwar, ta shayar da shi, ta kai shi fadar sarki. An yi amfani da matakan terrace azaman ma'aunin kida ta Maria da yaran von Trapp a cikin Sautin Kiɗa.

Unicorns a Matakai zuwa Lambunan Mirabell
Unicorns a Matakai zuwa Lambunan Mirabell

Giant dutse unicorns guda biyu, dawakai tare da ƙaho a kansu, kwance a kan kafafun su tsaron "Musical Matakan", ƙofar arewa ƙofar zuwa Mirabell Gardens. 'Yan mata kaɗan, amma masu tunani suna jin daɗin hawan su. Unicorns kawai suna kwance akan matakala don ƙananan 'yan mata su taka su kai tsaye. Dabbobin ƙofa kamar suna rura wutar tunanin 'yan mata. Mafarauci kawai zai iya yaudarar unicorn tare da budurwa budurwa tsantsa. Unicorn ana jan hankalin wani abu da ba zai yiwu ba.

Mirabell Gardens a Salzburg
An duba Lambunan Mirabell daga "Matsayin Kiɗa"

Lambunan Mirabell lambun baroque ne a Salzburg wanda ke cikin Cibiyar Tarihi ta Duniya ta UNESCO na birnin Salzburg. Yarima Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun ne ya ba da umarni a zayyana Lambunan Mirabell a halin yanzu a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach. A cikin 1854 Sarkin sarakuna Franz Joseph ya buɗe lambunan Mirabell ga jama'a.

Baroque Marble Staircase Mirabell Palace
Baroque Marble Staircase Mirabell Palace

An gina fadar Mirabell a cikin 1606 ta Yarima- Archbishop Wolf Dietrich don ƙaunataccensa Salome Alt. "Baroque Marble Staircase" yana kaiwa zuwa Gidan Marble na Fadar Mirabell. Shahararren matakala mai hawa huɗu (1722) ya dogara ne akan ƙirar Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt. An gina shi a cikin 1726 ta Georg Raphael Donner, mafi mahimmancin sculptor na tsakiyar Turai na zamaninsa. Madadin balustrade, an tsare shi da tarkacen hazaka da aka yi da C-arcs da volutes tare da kayan ado na putti.

Fadar Mirabell
Fadar Mirabell

Doguwa, mai jajayen gashi launin ruwan kasa da idanu masu launin toka, Salome Alt, mafi kyawun mace a garin. Wolf Dietrich ya san ta a lokacin wani biki a dakin sha na birni a Waagplatz. A can ne aka gudanar da hukunce-hukuncen hukumar birnin kuma an kawo karshen ayyukan ilimi. Bayan da aka zabe shi a matsayin Yarima Archbishop Wolf Dietrich ya yi kokarin samun takardar izinin da ta hanyarsa za a yi masa aure a matsayinsa na limami. Duk da ƙoƙarin sasanci da kawun nasa, Cardinal Marcus Sitticus von Hohenems ya yi, wannan aikin ya ci tura. A cikin 1606 yana da Gidan Altenau, wanda yanzu ake kira Mirabell, wanda aka gina don Salome Alt, wanda aka yi masa ƙirar "Ville suburbane".

Pegasus tsakanin Zakuna
Pegasus tsakanin zakuna

Bellerophon, babban jarumi kuma mai kashe dodanni, ya hau dokin tashi da aka kama. Babban abin da ya yi shi ne kashe dodo Chimera, jikin akuya mai kan zaki da jelar maciji. Bellerophon ya sami rashin jin daɗin alloli bayan ƙoƙarin hawan Pegasus zuwa Mount Olympus don shiga su.

Pegasus Fountain Salzburg
Pegasus Fountain

Pegasus fountain cewa Maria da yaran sun yi tsalle a cikin Sautin Kiɗa yayin da suke rera Do Re Mi. Pegasus, da tatsuniya allahntaka doki zuriya ce ta Dan wasan Olympia bautãwa Poseidon, allahn dawakai. Duk inda dokin mai fikafikai ya bugi kofatonsa har ƙasa, sai maɓuɓɓugar ruwa mai ban sha'awa ta fashe.

Zakuna Guarding Bastion'stairs
Zakuna Guarding Bastion'stairs

Zakuna guda biyu na dutse kwance akan katangar bastion, daya a gaba, dayan kuma ya dan daga yana kallon sama, suna tsare kofar shiga daga karamin benen kasa zuwa lambun bastion. Akwai zakuna uku akan rigar makamai na Babenbergs. A hannun dama na rigar makamai na jihar Salzburg wani zaki ne madaidaici wanda aka juya zuwa dama cikin zinare kuma a hagu, kamar yadda a kan rigar Babenberg, ya nuna sandar azurfa a ja, garkuwar Austrian.

Zwergerlgarten, Dwarf Gnome Park

Lambun dwarf, mai zane-zanen dutsen dutsen Untersberg, wani bangare ne na lambun baroque Mirabell wanda Fischer von Erlach ya tsara. A zamanin Baroque, an yi amfani da manyan mutane da gajerun mutane aiki a kotunan Turai da yawa. An daraja su don amincinsu da amincinsu. Dwarves ya kamata su nisantar da dukan mugunta.

Western Bosket tare da Hedge Tunnel
Western Bosket tare da Hedge Tunnel

Bosquet na baroque na yau da kullun an ɗan yanke "itace" da fasaha a cikin baroque lambun Mirabell na Fischer von Erlach. Bishiyoyi da katangar sun ratsa ta madaidaiciyar gadi mai fadi irin na falo. Ta haka ne bosket din ya samar da takwaransa na ginin katafaren ginin tare da shimfidarsa, matakalansa da dakunan taro kuma an yi amfani da shi ta irin wannan hanya zuwa cikin gidan domin yin wasannin kide kide da wake-wake da sauran kananan nishadi. Yau yammacin bosket na Mirabell Castle kunshi wani uku-jere "babban tini" na hunturu Linden itatuwa, wanda aka sa a cikin wani geometrically shigen sukari-siffa siffar ta yau da kullum cuts, da kuma wani gidan kashe ahu da zagaye baka trellis, da shinge rami Maria da yaran sun ruga a guje sa’ad da suke rera Do Re Mi.

Jajayen tulips a cikin ƙirar gadon fure na baroque a cikin babban lambun parterre na Lambunan Mirabell, wanda tsawonsa ya nufa kudu zuwa ga kagara na Hohensalzburg sama da tsohon garin zuwa hagu na Salzach. Bayan da Archdiocese na Salzburg ya zama mai zaman kansa a shekara ta 1811, an sake fasalin lambun a cikin salon lambun lambun Ingilishi na yanzu ta Yarima Ludwig na Bavaria, tare da kiyaye wani yanki na wuraren baroque. 

A cikin 1893, an rage yankin lambun saboda gina gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Salzburg, wanda shine babban ginin ginin da ke kusa da kudu maso yamma. Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Jihar Salzburg a Makartplatz an gina shi ne ta kamfanin Fellner & Helmer na Viennese, wanda ya ƙware a cikin gine-ginen wasan kwaikwayo, a matsayin sabon gidan wasan kwaikwayo bayan tsohon gidan wasan kwaikwayo, wanda Prince Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo ya gina a 1775 maimakon ɗakin ball, dole ne ya gina. a rushe saboda rashin tsaro.

Fencer Borghesian
Fencer Borghesian

sculptures na "Borghesi fencers" a ƙofar Makartplatz daidai daidai da kwafi bisa wani tsohon sassaka daga karni na 17 da aka samu kusa da Roma da kuma cewa yana cikin Louvre yanzu. Tsohuwar mutum-mutumi mai girman rai na jarumi da ke yaƙi da mahayi ana kiransa shingen Borghesian. An bambanta shingen shinge na Borghesian ta hanyar ingantaccen haɓakar yanayin halittarsa ​​don haka ya kasance ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan da aka fi sha'awar sassaka a cikin fasahar Renaissance.

Holy Trinity Church, Dreifaltigkeitskirche
Holy Trinity Church, Dreifaltigkeitskirche

A cikin 1694 Yarima Archbishop Johann Ernst Graf Thun da Hohenstein sun yanke shawarar gina sabon gidan firistoci don kwalejoji biyu da ya kafa tare da cocin da aka keɓe ga Triniti Mai Tsarki, Dreifaltigkeitskirche, a kan iyakar gabas na lambun Hannibal na lokacin, gangaren. Yanar gizo tsakanin ƙofar tsakiyar da kuma gidan sarauta na Mannerist Secundogenitur. A yau, dandalin Makart, tsohon lambun Hannibal, ya mamaye facade na Cocin Triniti Mai Tsarki wanda Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach ya gina a tsakiyar gine-ginen kwaleji, sabon gidan firistoci'.

Gidan Mozart akan Makart Square a Salzburg
Gidan Mozart akan Makart Square a Salzburg

A cikin "Tanzmeisterhaus", gidan no. 8 akan Hannibalplatz, wani fili mai tasowa, ƙarami, murabba'i rectangular wanda ya daidaita tare da tsayin daka zuwa Cocin Triniti, wanda aka sake masa suna Makartplatz a lokacin rayuwar mai zane wanda Sarkin sarakuna Franz Joseph I ya nada zuwa Vienna. Aristocrats, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart da iyayensa sun zauna a wani gida a bene na farko daga 1773 har sai da ya koma Vienna a 1781, yanzu gidan kayan gargajiya bayan gidan a Getreidegasse inda aka haifi Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ya zama karami.

Salzburg Holy Trinity Church
Holy Trinity Church Facade

Tsakanin hasumiyai da ke fitowa, facade na Cocin Triniti Mai Tsarki yana jujjuyawa a cikin tsakiyar tsakiyar tare da taga mai zagaye mai zagaye tare da ginshiƙai, tsakanin pilasters biyu da waɗanda aka gabatar, ginshiƙai guda biyu, wanda Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach ya gina daga 1694 zuwa 1702. Hasumiya a bangarorin biyu tare da karrarawa da gables na agogo. A kan ɗaki, rigar makamai na wanda ya kafa tare da crook da takobi, a matsayin al'ada na al'ada na al'ada na Yarima Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun da Hohenstein, wanda ya yi amfani da ikonsa na ruhaniya da na duniya. Babban bakin teku na concave yana gayyatar mai kallo don matsawa kusa da shiga cocin.

Tambour Dome
Tambour Dome

Tambour, da connecting, cylindrical, bude-window mahada tsakanin coci da dome, an raba zuwa raka'a takwas tare da kananan windows rectangular ta hanyar m pilasters biyu. Johann Michael Rottmayr ya yi fresco na dome a kusa da 1700 kuma yana nuna nadin sarautar Maria tare da taimakon mala'iku tsarkaka, annabawa da kakanni. 

A cikin rufin akwai ƙaramin tambour na biyu wanda aka tsara shi da tagogi na rectangular. Johann Michael Rottmayr ya kasance mafi mutuntawa kuma mafi yawan zane-zane na farkon Baroque a Austria. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach ya girmama shi sosai, bisa ga tsarinsa wanda yarima Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun da Hohenstein suka gina Cocin Trinity daga 1694 zuwa 1702.

Cikin Cikin Cocin Trinity
Salzburg Trinity Church na cikin gida

Babban ɗaki mai ɗaki yana mamaye hasken da ke haskakawa ta wata taga mai madauwari da ke saman babban bagadin, wanda aka raba shi zuwa ƙananan rectangles, inda ƙananan rectangles ke raba su zuwa abin da ake kira slug panes a cikin wani nau'i na saƙar zuma. Babban bagadin ya fito ne daga zane na Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach. Redos na bagadin shine aedicula, tsarin marmara tare da pilasters da lebur mai sassauƙa na baka. Triniti Mai Tsarki da mala'iku biyu masu ƙauna ana nuna su azaman ƙungiyar filastik. 

An shigar da mimbarin tare da giciyen mai wa'azi a cikin katangar bangon dama. Ƙunƙarar suna kan bangon diagonal guda huɗu a kan bene na marmara, wanda ke da tsarin da ke jaddada oval na ɗakin. A cikin crypt akwai sarcophagus tare da zuciyar maginin Yarima Archbishop Johann Ernst Count Thun da Hohenstein bisa wani zane na Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach.

kofa francis salzburg
Francis Gate Salzburg

Linzer Gasse, da elongated babban titin tsohon garin Salzburg a gefen dama na Salzach, take kaiwa daga Platzl zuwa Schallmoserstraße a cikin shugabanci na Vienna. Ba da daɗewa ba bayan farkon Linzer Gasse a tsayin Stefan-Zweig-Platz Ƙofar Francis yana gefen dama, kudu, gefen Linzer Gasse. Ƙofar Francis babbar hanya ce mai hawa 2, ƙofar da ta dace da ƙofa zuwa Stefan-Zweig-Weg zuwa tashar tashar Francis sannan zuwa gidan sufi na Capuchin a Capuzinerberg. A cikin gaɓar babbar hanya akwai harsashin soja da aka sassaka tare da rigar makamai na Count Markus Sittikus na Hohenems, daga 1612 zuwa 1619 yarima Bishop na archfoundation Salzburg, maginin Ƙofar Francis. Sama da harsashi na sojoji yana jin daɗin wanda stigmatization na HL. An nuna Francis a cikin zane tare da busa gable, daga 1617.

Garkuwar hanci a Linzer Gasse Salzburg
Garkuwar hanci a Linzer Gasse Salzburg

An mayar da hankali kan hoton da aka ɗauka a cikin Linzer Gasse akan maƙallan ƙarfe na ƙarfe, wanda kuma aka sani da garkuwar hanci. Maƙeran ƙarfe ne ke yin garkuwar hanci na fasaha daga ƙarfe tun tsakiyar zamanai. An ja hankalin sana'ar da aka yi tallar tare da alamomi kamar maɓalli. Guilds ƙungiyoyin masu sana'a ne waɗanda aka ƙirƙira a tsakiyar zamanai don kare muradun gama gari.

Salzburg's Sebastian Church ciki
Sebastian Church Interior

In Linzer Gasse no. 41 akwai Cocin Sebastian da ke tare da dogon gefen kudu-maso-gabas da hasumiya ta facade daidai da Linzer Gasse. Cocin St. Sebastian na farko ya kasance daga 1505-1512. An sake gina shi daga 1749-1753. Babban bagadin da ke cikin ƙwanƙolin da aka ja da baya yana da tsarin marmara mai ɗan ɗanɗano tare da daure na pilasters, ginshiƙai biyu da aka gabatar, madaidaiciyar cranked entablature da saman ƙara. A tsakiyar wani mutum-mutumi tare da Maryamu tare da yaron daga kusa da 1610. A cikin fassarar akwai taimako na Saint Sebastian daga 1964. 

Makabartar Portal Sebastian Salzburg
Makabartar Portal Sebastian Salzburg

Samun damar zuwa makabartar Sebastian daga Linzer Straße yana tsakanin ƙungiyar mawaƙa ta Cocin Sebastian da Altstadthotel Amadeus. A semicircular baka portal, wanda ke iyaka da pilasters, entablature da kuma saman daga 1600 tare da busa gable, wanda ya ƙunshi rigar makamai na kafa da magini, Prince Archbishop Wolf Dietrich.

Makabartar Sebastians
Makabartar Sebastians

Makabartar Sebastian ta haɗu da arewa maso yamma na Cocin Sebastian. An gina shi daga 1595-1600 a madadin Yarima Archbishop Wolf Dietrich a madadin wata makabarta da ta wanzu tun farkon karni na 16, wanda aka kera akan Campi Santi na Italiya. Camposanto, Italiyanci don "fila mai tsarki", shine sunan Italiyanci don makabarta mai kama da tsakar gida tare da babbar hanya a buɗe ciki. An kewaye makabartar Sebastian ta kowane bangare da ginshiƙai na ginshiƙai. An lullube guraben arcade tare da madogaran ƙwanƙwasa tsakanin ɗigon bel.

mozart kabari salzburg
Mozart Grave Salzburg

A cikin filin makabartar Sebastian kusa da hanyar zuwa wurin mausoleum, mai sha'awar Mozart Johann Evangelist Engl ya gina wani kabari na nuni wanda ya ƙunshi kabarin dangin Nissen. Georg Nikolaus Nissen ya yi aure na biyu da Constanze, gwauruwa Mozart. Mahaifin Mozart Leopold duk da haka an binne shi a cikin abin da ake kira kabarin jama'a mai lamba 83, a yau kabarin Eggersche a gefen kudu na makabartar. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart an binne shi a St. Marx a Vienna, mahaifiyarsa a Saint-Eustache a Paris da 'yar uwarsa Nannerl a St. Peter a Salzburg.

Munich Kindl na Salzburg
Munich Kindl na Salzburg

A kusurwar ginin da ke kusurwar Dreifaltigkeitsgasse / Linzer Gasse, abin da ake kira "Münchner Hof", an haɗa wani sassaka a gefen da ke fitowa a bene na farko, yana nuna wani mai salo mai salo tare da makamai masu tasowa, hannun hagu yana riƙe da littafi. The hukuma riga na makamai na Munich wani sufi rike da littafin rantsuwa a hannunsa na hagu, kuma yana yin rantsuwa a dama. An san rigar makamai na Munich da Münchner Kindl. Münchner Hof yana tsaye ne a inda mafi tsufan masaukin mashaya a Salzburg, "Goldenes Kreuz-Wirtshaus", ya tsaya.

Salzach in Salzburg
Salzach in Salzburg

Salzach yana gudana arewa zuwa Inn. Yana da sunansa ga jigilar gishiri da ke aiki akan kogin. Gishiri daga Hallein Dürrnberg shine mafi mahimmancin tushen samun kudin shiga ga manyan limaman Salzburg. Salzach da Inn suna kan iyaka da Bavaria inda akwai ma'adinan gishiri a Berchtesgaden. Dukansu al'amura tare sun haifar da rikice-rikice tsakanin Archbishop na Salzburg da Bavaria, wanda ya kai kololuwarsu a cikin 1611 tare da mamayar Berchtesgaden da Yarima Archbishop Wolf Dietrich ya yi. A sakamakon haka, Maximilian I, Duke na Bavaria, ya mamaye Salzburg kuma ya tilasta Yarima Archbishop Wolf Dietrich ya yi murabus.

Salzburg Town Hall Tower
Salzburg Town Hall Tower

Ta hanyar baka na zauren gari ka taka zuwa dandalin zauren garin. A karshen filin taro na birnin hasumiyar zauren garin na tsaye a gefen gefen facade na rococo na ginin. Hasumiya ta tsohon zauren garin tana tsaye ne da wasu ’yan fashi da makami sama da cornice dauke da ’yan fashin kusurwa. A kan hasumiya akwai ƙaramin hasumiya mai ɗamarar ɗaki tare da kubba mai sassa da yawa. Hasumiyar kararrawa ta ƙunshi ƙananan ƙararrawa guda biyu daga ƙarni na 14 da 16 da babban kararrawa daga ƙarni na 20. A cikin tsakiyar zamanai, mazauna sun dogara da kararrawa, saboda an ƙara agogon hasumiya a cikin karni na 18 kawai. Kararrawar ta bai wa mazauna wurin jin dadi kuma an buga su a yayin da gobara ta tashi.

Salzburg Canjin Markt
Salzburg Canjin Markt

Alte Markt fili ne mai murabba'i rectangular wanda aka taɓa shi a kunkuntar gefen arewa ta titin Kranzlmarkt-Judengasse kuma wanda ke faɗaɗa cikin sifa mai rectangular a kudu kuma yana buɗewa zuwa wurin zama. An tsara filin filin da rufaffiyar jeri na kyawawan gidaje, gidaje masu hawa 5 zuwa 6, waɗanda galibinsu na zamanin da ne ko kuma daga ƙarni na 16. Gidajen wani bangare ne na 3-zuwa 4-, wani bangare na 6-zuwa 8-axis kuma galibi suna da tagogi masu girman gaske da tagogi masu ma'ana. 

Babban fifikon facade na siriri mai laushi tare da madaidaiciyar tagar taga, kayan ado na katako ko kayan ado masu kyau daga karni na 19 yana da yanke hukunci ga yanayin sararin samaniya. Salon slab na Josephine yayi amfani da sauƙaƙan gine-ginen da ke bayan gari, waɗanda suka narkar da tsarin tectonic zuwa yadudduka na bango da fale-falen. A tsakiyar m square a kan Alter Markt tsaye tsohon kasuwa marmaro, keɓe ga St. Florian, tare da wani Floriani shafi a tsakiyar marmaro.

An gina ramin rijiyar octagonal da aka yi da marmara Untersberg a shekara ta 1488 a madadin tsohuwar rijiyar zana bayan da aka gina bututun ruwan sha daga Gersberg bisa gadar birni zuwa tsohuwar kasuwa. The ornate, fentin karkace grille a kan marmaro kwanakin daga 1583, tendrils wanda ya ƙare a cikin grotesques sanya daga sheet karfe, ibexes, tsuntsaye, mahaya da shugabannin.

Alte Markt fili ne mai murabba'i rectangular wanda aka taɓa shi a kunkuntar gefen arewa ta titin Kranzlmarkt-Judengasse kuma wanda ke faɗaɗa cikin sifa mai rectangular a kudu kuma yana buɗewa zuwa wurin zama. 

An tsara filin filin da rufaffiyar jeri na kyawawan gidaje, gidaje masu hawa 5 zuwa 6, waɗanda galibinsu na zamanin da ne ko kuma daga ƙarni na 16. Gidajen wani bangare ne na 3-zuwa 4-, wani bangare na 6-zuwa 8-axis kuma galibi suna da tagogi masu girman gaske da tagogi masu ma'ana. 

Babban fifikon facade na siriri mai laushi tare da madaidaiciyar tagar taga, kayan ado na katako ko kayan ado masu kyau daga karni na 19 yana da yanke hukunci ga yanayin sararin samaniya. Salon slab na Josephine yayi amfani da sauƙaƙan gine-ginen da ke bayan gari, waɗanda suka narkar da tsarin tectonic zuwa yadudduka na bango da fale-falen. An yi wa bangon gidajen ado da tarkace maimakon manyan tarkace. 

A tsakiyar m square a kan Alter Markt tsaye tsohon kasuwa marmaro, keɓe ga St. Florian, tare da wani Floriani shafi a tsakiyar marmaro. An gina ramin rijiyar octagonal da aka yi da marmara Untersberg a shekara ta 1488 a madadin tsohuwar rijiyar zana bayan da aka gina bututun ruwan sha daga Gersberg bisa gadar birni zuwa tsohuwar kasuwa. Gersberg yana cikin kwandon kudu maso yamma tsakanin Gaisberg da Kühberg, wanda shine tsaunin arewa maso yammacin Gaisberg. The ornate, fentin karkace grille a kan marmaro kwanakin daga 1583, tendrils wanda ya ƙare a cikin grotesques sanya daga sheet karfe, ibexes, tsuntsaye, mahaya da shugabannin.

A matakin Florianibrunnen, a gefen gabas na murabba'in, a cikin gidan no. 6, shine tsohon kantin magani na kotun yarima-archbishop wanda aka kafa a cikin 1591 a cikin wani gida mai firam ɗin baroque na ƙarshen zamani da rufin da ke da ƙima daga tsakiyar karni na 18.

Tsohon yarima-archbishop ta kotu kantin magani a kan ƙasa yana da 3-axis kantin gaba daga kusa da 1903. The kiyaye kantin magani, da dakunan dakunan kantin magani, tare da shelves, takardar sayan tebur kazalika da tasoshin da na'urorin daga 18th karni ne Rococo. . The kantin asalinsa yana cikin gida mai lamba 7 kuma an canza shi zuwa wurin da yake yanzu, gidan no. 6, 1903.

Kafe Tomaselli a Alter Markt No. 9 a Salzburg an kafa shi a shekara ta 1700. Ita ce mafi tsufa gidan cafe a Ostiriya. Johann Fontaine, wanda ya zo daga Faransa, an ba shi izinin ba da cakulan, shayi da kofi a cikin Goldgasse da ke kusa. Bayan mutuwar Fontaine, rukunin kofi ya canza hannu sau da yawa. A cikin 1753, Anton Staiger, babban malamin kotu na Archbishop Siegmund III ya karɓi gidan kofi na Engelhardsche. Sunan mahaifi Schrattenbach. A cikin 1764 Anton Staiger ya sayi gidan Ibrahim Zillnerische a kusurwar tsohuwar kasuwa, gidan da ke da facade na axis 3 da ke fuskantar Alter Markt da facade mai tsayi 4 da ke fuskantar Churfürststrasse kuma an ba shi bangon bene mai gangara. taga Frames a kusa da 1800. Staiger ya mayar da kofi gidan a cikin wani m kafa ga babba aji. Mambobin dangin Mozart da Haydn su ma sun yi ta zuwa Kafe Tomaselli. Carl Tomaselli ya sayi gidan kafe a shekara ta 1852 kuma ya buɗe wurin shakatawa na Tomaselli daura da gidan cafe a 1859. Otto Prossinger ya kara da baranda a 1937/38. Bayan yakin duniya na biyu, Ba'amurke sun gudanar da gidan kafe a karkashin sunan Kafe na Titin Arba'in na Biyu.

Mozart Monument na Ludwig M. Schwanthaler
Mozart Monument na Ludwig M. Schwanthaler

Ludwig Michael von Schwanthaler, zuriya na ƙarshe na dangin Upper Austrian sculptor Schwanthaler, ya kafa abin tunawa da Mozart a shekara ta 1841 a lokacin cika shekaru 50 na mutuwar Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Hoton tagulla mai tsayi kusan mita uku, wanda Johann Baptist Stiglmaier, darektan cibiyar samar da ma'adanai a Munich, an gina shi ne a ranar 4 ga Satumba, 1842 a Salzburg a tsakiyar abin da ke lokacin Michaeler-Platz.

Hoton tagulla na gargajiya yana nuna Mozart a cikin matsayi na gaba da siket da gashi, salo, takardar kiɗa (gungura) da laurel wreath. Alamomin da aka kashe a matsayin agajin tagulla suna wakiltar aikin Mozart a fagagen coci, kide-kide da kidan daki da kuma wasan opera. Mozartplatz na yau an ƙirƙira shi ne a cikin 1588 ta hanyar rushe gidaje daban-daban a ƙarƙashin Yarima Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau. Gidan Mozartplatz 1 shine abin da ake kira Sabon wurin zama, wanda a cikinsa yake da Gidan Tarihi na Salzburg. Mutum-mutumin Mozart yana ɗaya daga cikin shahararrun batutuwan katin waya a tsohon garin Salzburg.

Drum Dome na Kollegienkirche a Salzburg
Drum Dome na Kollegienkirche a Salzburg

A bayan gidan, babban dome na Cocin Salzburg Collegiate, wanda aka gina a yankin Jami'ar Paris Lodron daga 1696 zuwa 1707 ta Yarima Archbishop Johann Ernst Graf von Thun da Hohenstein bisa ƙira ta Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach a ƙarƙashin kulawar An raba mason aster na kotun Johann Grabner zuwa sanduna biyu.

Kusa da kubbar ganga akwai hasumiya masu baƙar fata na Cocin Collegiate, a kusurwar da za ku iya ganin mutum-mutumi. Ana sanya fitilun fitilu, tsarin aikin buɗe ido zagaye, akan dome ɗin ganga sama da idon dome. A cikin majami'u na Baroque, fitilu kusan koyaushe yana haifar da ƙarshen dome kuma yana wakiltar mahimman tushen hasken rana.

Residence Square Salzburg
Residence Square Salzburg

Yarima Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau ne ya ƙirƙira Residenzplatz ta hanyar cire jeri na gidajen gari a Aschhof a kusa da 1590, ƙaramin fili wanda ya yi daidai da babban ginin Hypo na yau akan Residenzplatz, wanda ya rufe kusan 1,500 m², da makabartar babban coci, wacce ke arewacin Cathedral dake. A matsayin maye gurbin makabartar babban coci, an kirkiro makabartar Sebastian kusa da cocin St. Sebastian da ke hannun dama na tsohon garin. 

Tare da Aschhof da kuma zuwa ga gidajen gari, wani katanga mai ƙarfi ya zagaye kewaye da makabartar babban coci a wancan lokacin, bangon katanga, wanda ke wakiltar iyakar tsakanin garin sarki da garin. Wolf Dietrich shi ma ya mayar da wannan katanga zuwa babban coci a shekara ta 1593. Haka aka samar da filin da ke gaban tsohon da sabon wurin zama, wanda a lokacin ake kira babban filin wasa.

Kotun Arch Building
Kotun Arches Haɗa Dandalin Cathedral tare da Franziskaner Gasse

Abin da ake kira Wallistrakt, wanda a yau ya ƙunshi wani ɓangare na Jami'ar Paris-Lodron, an kafa shi a cikin 1622 ta Prince Archbishop Paris Count von Lodron. Sunan ginin Wallistrakt daga mazaunin Maria Franziska Countess Wallis. 

Babban mafi dadewa na filin Wallis shine abin da ake kira ginin baka na tsakar gida tare da facade mai hawa uku wanda ya zama bangon yammacin dandalin babban coci. An raba ɗakunan ajiya ta hanyar lebur sau biyu, filasta a kwance waɗanda tagogin suke zama a kansu. An jaddada facade mai lebur a tsaye ta tarkacen kusurwoyin pilasters da gatari na taga. 

Babban bene na ginin baka na kotun yana hawa na 2. A arewa, tana iyaka da reshe na kudu na wurin zama, a kudu, akan Archabbey na St. Peter. A kudancin babban ginin kotun akwai gidan kayan tarihi na St. Peter, wani ɓangare na Gidan Tarihi na DomQuartier. Gidajen Wolf Dietrich yarima-archbishop suna cikin wannan yankin kudu na ginin kotun. 

Arcades ɗin ɗakin ginshiƙi ne mai axis 3, benaye 2 wanda aka gina a cikin 1604 ƙarƙashin Yarima Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau. Gilashin farfajiyar sun haɗa Domplatz tare da axis Franziskanergasse Hofstallgasse, wanda ke gudana kai tsaye zuwa facade na babban coci kuma an kammala shi a cikin 1607. 

Ta cikin harabar farfajiyar mutum ya shiga gaban majami'ar cathedral daga yamma, kamar ta baka mai nasara. The "porta triumphalis", wanda aka asali nufin bude tare da biyar arches zuwa babban coci, ya taka rawa a karshen jerin yarima-archbishop.

An keɓe Cathedral na Salzburg ga hl. Rupert da kuma Virgil. An yi bikin ne a ranar 24 ga Satumba, ranar St. Rupert. Cathedral na Salzburg wani gini ne na Baroque wanda Yarima Archbishop Paris Count von Lodron ya buɗe a cikin 1628.

Ƙaddamarwa tana cikin gabas, ɓangaren gaba na babban coci. Sama da tsallaka akwai dome dome mai tsayin mita 71 na babban cocin tare da pilasters na kusurwa da tagogin murabba'i. A cikin dome akwai frescoes takwas tare da al'amuran daga Tsohon Alkawari a cikin layuka biyu. Abubuwan da ke faruwa suna da alaƙa da fage na sha'awar Almasihu a cikin teku. Tsakanin layuka na frescoes akwai jeri mai tagogi. Ana iya samun wakilcin masu shelar bishara guda huɗu a saman ɓangaren kurbar.

Sama da ginshiƙan tsallake-tsallake akwai pendants trapezoidal don canzawa daga shirin bene na murabba'in tsallakewa zuwa ganga octagonal. Kubbar tana da sifar rumbun gidan sufi, tare da filaye mai lanƙwasa wanda ya zama kunkuntar zuwa saman sama da gindin ganga guda takwas a kowane gefe na polygon. A cikin tsakiyar tsakiyar akwai wani tsarin buɗe ido sama da ido dome, fitilar, wanda Ruhu Mai Tsarki yake cikinsa a matsayin kurciya. Ketare yana karɓar kusan dukkan haske daga fitilar dome.

A cikin Cathedral na Salzburg a cikin mawaƙan mawaƙa guda ɗaya na haskakawa, inda babban bagadi mai 'yanci, wani tsari da aka yi da marmara tare da pilasters da lankwasa, busa gable, yana nutsewa. Saman babban bagadi tare da busa gable triangular an tsara shi da manyan ɗimbin ƙira da caryatids. Ƙungiyar bagadin yana nuna tashin Kristi tare da Hll. Rupert da Virgil a cikin wannan labarin. A cikin mensa, tebur na bagaden, akwai reliquary na St. Rupert da Virgil. Rupert ya kafa St. Peter, gidan sufi na farko na Austria, Virgil shi ne abbot na St. Peter kuma ya gina babban coci na farko a Salzburg.

Gidan Cathedral na Salzburg yana da nau'i hudu. Babban tashar jirgin yana tare da ɓangarorin biyu tare da jeri na ɗakin karatu da oratorios a sama. An tsara bangon ta hanyar pilasters biyu a cikin tsari mai girma, tare da santsi mai santsi da manyan manyan abubuwa. A sama da pilasters akwai dawafi, murƙushe ƙulli wanda rumbun ganga mai madauri biyu ta kwanta.

Cranking shine zana cornice a kwance a kusa da bangon bango a tsaye, yana jan cornice akan abin da ke fitowa. Kalmar entablature ana fahimtarta tana nufin gabaɗayan abubuwan da ke kwance a sama da ginshiƙai.

A cikin ɗakunan da ke tsakanin pilaster da entablature akwai manyan arcades masu tsayi, baranda masu fitowa da ke hutawa a kan na'urorin wasan motsa jiki da ƙofofin magana mai sassa biyu. Oratorios, ƙananan ɗakunan addu'o'i daban-daban, suna nan kamar gungumen azaba a kan hoton jirgin kuma suna da kofofin zuwa babban ɗakin. Ba a buɗe baka ga jama'a, amma an keɓe shi don takamaiman rukuni, misali limamai, membobin tsari, ƴan uwantaka ko fitattun muminai.

Hannun juzu'i guda ɗaya da ƙungiyar mawaƙa kowanne yana haɗuwa a cikin karkiyar rectangular zuwa madaidaicin murabba'i a cikin madaidaicin madauwari. A cikin conche, semicircular apse, na mawaƙa, 2 na 3 na benayen taga suna haɗuwa da pilasters. Canje-canje zuwa ƙetare babban jirgin ruwa, makamai masu jujjuya da mawaƙa yana takure da yadudduka na pilasters da yawa.

Trikonchos suna ambaliya da haske yayin da nave ke cikin duhu-dumi saboda kawai hasken kai tsaye. Ya bambanta da tsarin bene a matsayin giciye na Latin, wanda madaidaiciyar nave a cikin yankin mashigar ya ketare a kusurwoyi madaidaici ta hanyar madaidaiciya madaidaiciya, a cikin mawaƙan conch guda uku, trikonchos, conches uku, watau semicircular apses na girman iri ɗaya. , a gefen murabba'i kamar wannan saitin juna don tsarin bene yana da siffar ganyen clover.

Farin stucco tare da manyan abubuwan ado na ado tare da baƙar fata a cikin ɓangarorin ƙasa da ɓacin rai suna ƙawata festoons, ra'ayi mai ƙayatarwa daga ƙasa na arches, wuraren ɗakin sujada da sassan bango tsakanin pilasters. Stucco ya shimfiɗa a kan entablature tare da frieze mai laushi kuma yana samar da jerin filaye na geometric tare da firam masu kusanci a cikin vault tsakanin maɗaukaki. Kasan babban cocin ya ƙunshi Untersberger mai haske da marmara Adnet mai launin ja.

Garin Salzburg
Garin Salzburg

Babban sansanin Hohensalzburg yana kan Festungsberg sama da tsohon garin Salzburg. Archbishop Gebhard, wanda aka fi sani da Archdiocese na Salzburg ne ya gina shi, a shekara ta 1077 a matsayin fadar Romanesque mai madauwari bango kewaye da tsaunin. Archbishop Gebhard ya kasance yana aiki a ɗakin sujada na sarki Heinrich III, 1017 - 1056, Sarkin Roman-Jamus, Sarkin sarakuna da Duke na Bavaria. A 1060 ya zo Salzburg a matsayin babban Bishop. Ya sadaukar da kansa ga kafa Gurk diocese (1072) da kuma gidan sufi na Benedictine Admont (1074). 

Daga shekara ta 1077 ya zama dole ya zauna a Swabia da Saxony na tsawon shekaru 9, saboda bayan da aka kori Henry IV ya shiga cikin sarki Rudolf von Rheinfelden mai adawa kuma ya kasa nuna kansa a kan Heinrich IV. a cikin Archbishopric nasa. Kusan 1500 wuraren zama a ƙarƙashin Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach, wanda ya yi mulkin kama-karya da son zuciya, an shirya su sosai kuma an faɗaɗa kagara zuwa kamannin da yake a yanzu. Kadai wanda bai yi nasara ba na kagara ya faru ne a yakin manoma a shekara ta 1525. Tun lokacin da aka kifar da Archbishopric a 1803, sansanin Hohensalzburg ya kasance a hannun gwamnati.

Salzburg Kapitel Horse Pond
Salzburg Kapitel Horse Pond

Tuni a cikin tsakiyar zamanai akwai "Rosstümpel" a kan Kapitelplatz, a lokacin har yanzu a tsakiyar square. A karkashin Yarima Archbishop Leopold Freiherr von Firmian, dan wan Yarima Archbishop Johann Ernst Graf von Thun da Hohenstein, an gina sabon hadaddiyar gicciyen tare da kusurwoyi masu lankwasa da balustrade a shekara ta 1732 bisa ga zane na Franz Anton Danreiter, babban mai duba Salzburg lambunan kotu.

Samun damar dawakai zuwa tafkin ruwa yana kaiwa kai tsaye zuwa rukuni na sassaka, wanda ke nuna gunkin teku Neptune tare da trident da kambi a kan doki mai ruwa da ruwa tare da 2 tritons na ruwa a tarnaƙi, halittu masu tasowa, rabi daga cikinsu. ya ƙunshi babban jikin ɗan adam da ƙasan jiki mai kama da kifi tare da wutsiya, a cikin wani yanki na Round arch in aedicle tare da pilaster biyu, madaidaiciyar entablature da lankwasa volute gable saman rawanin ado. Masanin sassaken na Salzburg Josef Anton Pfaffiner ne ya yi wannan sassaken na baroque, wanda kuma ya kera maɓuɓɓugar Floriani akan Alter Markt. Sama da agogon kallo akwai chronogram, rubutu a cikin Latin, wanda manyan haruffan da aka ba da lambar shekara a matsayin lambobi, tare da zanen rigar makamai na Yarima Archbishop Leopold Freiherr von Firmian a cikin filin gable.

Gidan Hercules Fountain Salzburg
Gidan Hercules Fountain Salzburg

Ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan farko da kuke gani lokacin shiga babban filin gidan tsohon mazaunin daga Residenzplatz shine grotto niche tare da maɓuɓɓugar ruwa da Hercules suna kashe dragon a ƙarƙashin arcades na yammacin vestibule. Hotunan Hercules abubuwan tarihi ne na fasahar Baroque da aka ba da izini waɗanda aka yi amfani da su azaman hanyar siyasa. Hercules jarumi ne wanda ya shahara da ƙarfinsa, wani adadi daga tatsuniyar Girka. Ƙungiyoyin jaruntaka sun taka muhimmiyar rawa ga jihar, saboda roƙon da aka yi wa masu bautar allahntaka yana wakiltar halal da kuma tabbatar da kariya ta Allah. 

Hoton kisan gillar da Hercules ya yi ya samo asali ne daga zane da Yarima Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau ya yi, wanda ya sake gina sabon wurin zama a gabashin babban cocin da kuma ainihin wurin zama na babban limamin cocin a yammacin babban cocin.

Dakin Taro a Gidan Salzburg
Gidan Taro na Salzburg

Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, babban Bishop na Salzburg yarima na ƙarshe kafin zaman lafiya a 1803, yana da bangon dakunan jihar na mazaunin an yi masa ado da kyawawan kayan ado da fari da zinare ta hanyar plasterer Peter Pflauder daidai da ɗanɗano na zamani.

Tsohuwar murhu na farko da aka adana tun daga shekarun 1770 zuwa 1780. A cikin 1803, Archbishopric ya zama mulkin duniya. Tare da sauye-sauye zuwa kotun daular, gidan da dangin Ostiriya ya yi amfani da shi azaman wurin zama na biyu. Habsburgs sun samar da dakunan jihar da kayan daki daga Hofimmobiliendepot.

Gidan taron yana mamaye hasken lantarki na 2 chandeliers, wanda aka yi nufin amfani da shi da kyandir, wanda aka rataye daga rufi. Chamdeliers abubuwa ne masu haske, waɗanda kuma ake kira "Luster" a Ostiriya, kuma waɗanda tare da amfani da hanyoyin haske da yawa da gilashi don hana haske suna samar da wasan fitilu. Ana amfani da chandeliers sau da yawa don dalilai na wakilci a cikin fitattun dakuna.

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